Posts Tagged ‘Iron Man Powers and abilities’

Armors of the 2000s

May 3, 2008

ironman armorHeroes Return Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #1 (February, 1998)

Fresh upon his return from the “Heroes Reborn” universe, Tony constructed this armor which served as a new beginning, combining cutting-edge technology with classic lines. The armor possessed energy-absorption strips, as well as a “horned” faceplate, reminiscent of the first red-and-gold armor, and a pentagonal chest beam.

 

Prototype “EM-safe” armor

  • First Appearance: Fantastic Four (vol. 3) #15 (March, 1999)

Experimental armor incorporating safe power systems, necessary when it became apparent the constant exposure to the powerful energy fields inside the Iron Man armor were harming Tony’s health. Iron Man transported to the moon to help the Fantastic Four; however a malfunction caused a brief battle between Iron Man and the FF. Despite its rough, unfinished state, it still played a vital role in defeating Ronan, the Kree Supreme Accuser.

 

Sentient Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #15 (April, 1999)

Incorporated ‘safe’ power systems, which insulated the wearer. Too large to fit into the traditional suitcase, it instead transformed into a compact, flight-capable module. It became sentient due to the Ultron Imperative (although the original tale controversially involved the Y2K bug as the explanation) being unwittingly implanted in it by Jocasta. As a sentient unit, it was a superior fighter to Iron Man. It possessed a strong desire to be with Tony Stark, an apparently initially sincere affection which soon grew into possessiveness and deadly obsession. In the end, however, the armor, which had intended to replace Tony altogether, sacrificed itself to save his life when he suffered a potentially fatal heart attack – ripping its own cybernetic heart out and shunting it into his creator’s body. Later, the Sentient Armor was revived by the misguided Sons of Yinsen who sought to use it to resurrect their prophet, Ho Yinsen. Unfortunately, Ultron’s consciousness quickly dominated the armor, even joining with his head, lost during the events of the “Ultron Imperative”-story. In the end, the armor was presumably destroyed when New Timbetpal, the massive floating city of the Sons of Yinsen, crashed.

 

Outer Atmospheric Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man: Bad Blood (miniseries) #4 (December, 2000)

A completely new space armor design. It requires a booster rig for takeoff, and has therefore been trimmed down to reduce weight. While it offers less protection than previous models, it is also stealthier and far more maneuverable in space, using anaerobic jets for propulsion. It contains a special compression gel to protect the wearer from G-forces, and automatically seals any leaks. To accommodate re-entry, the unit possesses a massive, expanding solar sail.

 

SKIN Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #42 (prototype); Iron Man (vol. 3) #44 (finished design)

This armor’s main difference from its predecessors is its sheer size; the torso and shoulders in particular are massive. Its development, starting from scratch, resulted mainly from Tony’s fear that an innate factor had resulted in his previous armor developing sentience. Its appearance also differed markedly from the Sentient Armor, perhaps to make it seem as different as possible: It possessed a circular chest beam, a greatly altered overall configuration (including many “industrial-style” details such as external tubing, earning this suit the ignoble nickname “udder armor”[citation needed]) and a restyled helmet.

The armor is powered by a Beta Particle Generator and solar power converters and controlled by a Cybernetic Interface and Battle Computer to enhance reactions when in combat. It can absorb directed energy attacks as well as massive non-directional energy discharges (like explosions). It also possesses a new force field.

The golden sections of Iron Man consisted of S.K.I.N (Synth-Kinetic Interface Nano-fluid), a liquid alloy that can be manipulated to conform to any desired shape. It is lightweight but has immense structural integrity, being harder than titanium and approaching low-grade adamantium. S.K.I.N. can be contracted to fit into a small container or stretched/shaped into another form. The alloy’s wondrous properties were developed by Askew Technologies, and the exact elements incorporated into the S.K.I.N. remain unknown. Tony had set up the S.K.I.N. of his armor to be stored in a small container. On his command, the S.K.I.N. spilled out and assumed its default armor configuration.

The larger size of the armor accommodated storage of several new systems, including an improved sonic array, upgraded chameleon field, energy blade, missiles and even a number of grapefruit-sized, spherical drone units which could hover and fly autonomously, and serve as scouts or remote-controlled weapons.

Unfortunately, this design had to be abandoned after Ultron proved how easily he could make S.K.I.N. (or a human being it was bonded to) jump through hoops.

 

Stealth Armor, Mk III

  • First Appearance: Black Panther (vol. 3) #44 (July, 2002)

Similar to Stark’s earlier Armor, the Mark III Stealth unit was also specifically designed to combat the Black Panther’s anti-metal vibranium claws — it is composed entirely of advanced composite ceramics and experimental bio-neural gel-pack circuitry, fused with a kevlar-like polymer and backed by optical fiber networks; all of which comes down to an armor which was invisible to electronic detection systems as well as the naked eye, even the Black Panther’s. Although the development of Stark’s new cloaking technology for the Mark 25 “S.K.I.N.” armor probably rendered the Mark III unit’s stealth technology obsolete, the Stealth armor is nevertheless an effective weapon against opponents such as the Black Panther and Magneto because of its plastic/ceramic design.

 

Tin Man

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #50 (March, 2002)

After the S.K.I.N. fiasco, Tony once again more or less redesigned the armor from scratch. Improved scanning included GPS and a particle mist that could be used to ‘mark’ targets. The armor, which went through various evolutions, had originally a generally segmented, almost insect-like appearance; later, it became heavier, more industrial, and the ultimate form of this armor (through trimmed down) made Tony sigh “It’s difficult to believe I used to be able to fit this inside a briefcase”.

Carbon dioxide provides underwater propulsion; immediate satellite uplinking even from miles underwater was possible.

Repulsors were improved with a ‘crowd control’ setting. The armor could also release a (tentatively called) “deflector pulse”, a shaped force field blasting outward from various points on the suit. Armor could also release a devastating “blockbuster” blast utilizing uni-beam and repulsors in concert, but more potent than either.

When commanded, the armor could also adopt a hovering, non-humanoid, autonomous combat mode, equipped with energy and projectile weapons.

 

Thorbuster

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #64 (March, 2003)

The Thor-Buster armor was designed by Tony Stark as a precaution against King Thor — in case his good deeds went bad. The power source for the armor was a mystical Asgardian crystal, originally part of a new type of power generator that Thor left Tony Stark to possibly use as a new energy source for mankind. Outwardly, it resembled the Asgardian Destroyer. Because it could absorb and utilize the massive amounts of energy Thor turned on it, in terms of raw strength this armor could be the mightiest Iron Man of all. Nevertheless, it was ultimately destroyed by King Thor, its power source undone.

 

Cobalt Man impostor

  • First Appearance: Avengers/Thunderbolts #1 (May, 2004)

Used to impersonate the Cobalt Man.

 

Ablative Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 3) #71 (October, 2003)

This prototype armor possessed armor made up out of three-inch, honeycomb-shaped tiles, piled several layers thick. Each tile was made of high-impact polymer. When one of the tiles was damaged, it popped off and the next one below it snapped into place. Furthermore, the suit used repulsor-tech force fields to position new tiles, produced in a “polymer kiln” on its back. It could also create a “storm cloud” of thousands of orbiting tiles around itself to act as “chaff”. This armor was originally designed to be used in space, where micrometeoroids provided an impact-rich environment, but was ultimately used to defend against a parasitical alien life form which infected organisms and altered them to suit its needs. For optimal efficacy, the tiles were “loaded” with specialized nanobots which would turn the alien’s biology against itself.

iron man armor suit

 

High-G suit

  • First Appearance: Iron Man(vol. 3) #83 (July, 2004)

Designed to withstand high gravity environments; it was bulky, being able to survive long-term exposure to at least 50 G; the wearer had blood artificially forced to body parts which would otherwise suffer from the extreme gravity. Unfortunately, the wearer is still susceptible to nitrogen narcosis and the bends.

 

Extremis Armor

After being critically injured during a battle with a nanotech-enhanced foe, Stark injected his nervous system with a modified techno-organic virus to save his own life. This fused Stark’s armor to his body, allowing him to store the inner layers of the Iron Man armor in the hollows of his bones as well as control it through direct brain impulses. The Extremis enhancement has turned Stark into a cyborg, whereby the usage of his existing lockchip (a personal area networking implement implanted in his forearm) is directly integrated into his nervous system.

His new armor is no longer a bulky unit which houses its own AI “response server” and miscellaneous interfaces for neural control. Instead, it is more lightweight (constructed of a pliable crystalline material with a molecular structure that can collimate into super-hard planes upon the application of an electrical field) and less complex (as it interfaces directly to Stark’s brain via the Extremis-modified cybernetic connections), and has much faster response time since it effectively functions like Stark’s second skin.

He is also able to remotely connect to external communications systems such as satellites, cellular phones, and computers through the PAN interconnect (that is now thought-controlled). Because the armor’s operating system is now directly connected to Stark’s nervous system, its response time has been significantly improved.

Another major departure from the previous armors is expansion of repulsor technology. The “repulsor flight system” provides lift (something like anti-gravity) and positive flight control (pitch, roll and yaw), while the usual rocket boots provide the armor with thrust. The same repulsor technology allows the individual pieces of the armor to levitate and assemble themselves, by modulating what Stark referred to as “vectored Repulsor fields”.

Furthermore, the Extremis process has endowed Stark with a ‘healing factor’ and possibly even enhanced physical abilities, as he was confident enough to challenge Logan/Wolverine to a fight (and even challenging to see who’s capable of recovering faster from the other’s attack). It was later stated that the Extremis enhancement speeded up a person’s repair process and hence the body’s cells died and regenerated at a faster rate. This effectively made Tony Stark immune to cancer and gave him his ‘healing factor’.

In the “Iron Man: The Inevitable” storyline, it was shown that it’s not only Tony Stark’s body and the interfacing undersheath that has self-healing properties. Even the Iron Man armor has the ability to self-heal and self-repair, presumably through the use of nanotechnology. The armor is also able to store power throughout its structure, indicating that instead of having main batteries mounted around the waist as in the older Iron Man armors, the Extremis armor incorporates distributed and decentralized energy storage.

Note: Although Extremis for reasons of simplicity is referred to as “a virus”, it is not. The Extremis process involved injecting several billion microscopic nanotubes, which act as information carriers, into the brain. The brain is then partly reprogrammed; the so-called “repair center”, that part of the brain which maintains an “integrity map” of the body, is told that the body is wrong. The physical reaction is that the entire body regrows itself, remaking itself per the Extremis instructions. Extremis itself, the original information package, is not involved; neither are “nanobots”.

Further research of the Extremis effect indicated it can cause extreme paranoia, alienation and bouts of aggression in the subject. It has been suggested that this (partly) explains Stark’s actions during Civil War and the Big Brother style posters of himself he has had placed around New York.

 

Argonauts

Sometime after the Extremis transformation, during at attack by the new Super-Adaptoid, Tony Stark realized he could command several armors at once. Building on this, and realizing the world was becoming an increasingly dangerous place, he decided to construct a “team” of Iron Men – hyper-advanced drones that would be under his direct mental command, just as his own armored body. Unfortunately, the “Argonauts” were abused and destroyed before they ever could serve for good. They included:

-“Space Ghost“; space-flight capable, nearly impossible to detect espionage model; possibly intended as a satellite-killer.

-“Submariner“; streamlined for great speed underwater; capable of using the ocean itself as a weapon, it apparently unleashed several tsunamis, and was able to overpower Namor, the Submariner, under water – an incredible feat.

-“Adamantium Man“; equipped with practically indestructible “Stark-Chobham” armor, an experimental composite of carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramics, laced with adamantium.

-“Digger“; enormous drone, possibly over a hundred tons; equipped with (shielded) Antarctic Vibranium (which dissolves any metal) helmet dome and a specialized repulsor/unibeam system which allowed it to tunnel at incredible speed.

-“Hulkbuster II“; also a massive drone, ostensibly designed mainly for raw power and toughness, to take on the Hulk. It proved entirely capable of taking on the Avengers.

While extremely powerful, the drones were useless once Tony Stark rendered himself unconscious.

 

Modern Hydro Suit

First Appearance: Wolverine #45 (August, 2006 )

During the Civil War arc of Wolverine solo series, Wolverine borrows Stark’s armor to pursue Namor who is undersea in New Pangea. A new hydro suit is used by Wolverine that correlates to the style of the modern Iron Man suit.

 

Hypervelocity

First Appearance: Iron Man Hypervelocity (January, 2007)

This new iteration of the armor possesses enhanced repulsors, housed not in gloves but in high-strength manipulator waldoes (giving the armor somewhat longer arms than usual); multiple-mode bootjets that can operate both with and without oxygen intake; improved structural integrity for the armor per se; an improved “chameleon mode” and a “supercavitation spike”, projecting upward from the back, which apparently creates a sort of “bubble” so that the armor can travel underwater at near-supersonic speeds. A massive amount of electrical energy is stored in a spinning, superconductive capacitor ring on the back.

The most radical feature of this armor must be that its vastly increased computing power allows it to make a “back-up” of Tony’s own mind, so that in the event of critical injury of the wearer, the armor can act as him, with all his knowledge, insight and experience. The effect is so complete that the armor, thus activated, referred to itself as “Tony 2.0”.

After several hours of existence, the armor managed to develop a program that enabled it to function at “hypervelocity” – effectively moving at a different timeframe than everyone else.

Note that this story is set before “Extremis”, though it was published afterwards.

 

Giant Armor

Used by Stark in #3 of the non-Canon New Avengers/Transformers miniseries. The size of a Transformer, it allowed Iron Man to go head-to-head with the invading Decepticons. Due to the massive energy requirements, this armor would quickly run out of power, until recharged by Optimus Prime, Jazz, and Bumblebee.

 

Hulkbuster Armor MK II

In the World War Hulk event, Stark designed a new Hulkbuster armor, in order to battle the Hulk upon his return from space. He does so in World War Hulk #1, and initially was able to hold his own against his foe. The new armor was built as a large exoskeletal shell which fits around his normal armor and is equipped with rocket-boosted gauntlets, capable of punching the Hulk back several miles. It is also equipped with Adamantium-tipped injector needles, which Stark used in an attempt to suppress the Hulk’s power with S.P.I.N. Tech nanites, but the nanites failed due to sabotage (See Avengers: The Initiative #4). With the damage done by the Hulk and the entire Stark Tower collapsing on the already damaged armor, it was unable to continue functioning. It briefly re-emerged as a host body for the demon Zom, who attempted to use it to access S.H.I.E.L.D. technology and destroy New York City by shifting it into the Negative Zone; Zom was defeated by the efforts of the self-styled “Renegades” (Amadeus Cho, Hercules, the Angel, and Namora), and the armor was used by Amadeus Cho as a temporary support to shore up structural damage caused in the battle.

Armors of the 1990s

May 3, 2008

Space Armor, Mk II

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #278

A new space armor design intended to function for weeks on end without maintenance, recharging or restocking of resources. It was able to evade the sophisticated sensors on Kree and Sh’iar spaceships as well as interface with their technology. It also possessed an extremely powerful self-destruct mechanism via its fusion reactor.

[edit] Telepresence Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #280

Critically wounded by a bullet near his spine, Tony Stark was paralyzed from the waist down. After some soul-searching, he designed an armor which would enable him to walk. While his paralysis was ended by the implantation of an organic microchip, this proved only the start of his problems, as the biochip was revealed to be a parasitic life form, designed to consume his own nervous system and replace it with one that could be controlled from the outside. He now needed the support armor even more to protect himself from the people who controlled his body, since his armor cybernetically responded to his own brain. The cybernetic interface and battle computer were integrated with the Telepresence Neural Net, a more subtle armor he used to simulate his degenerating nervous system. While it was still worn as a suit of armor, the functions and muscle control were carried out by the suit, not by the wearer.

War Machine

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #281

This suit was created initially by Stark to deal with the Masters of Silence threat; a later version, JRXL-1000, was designed and built for, and worn for a while by James Rhodes. It was designed for all-out warfare, and was also known as the “Variable Threat Response Battle Suit.” It was not collapsible, and included far heavier carbon-composite-based armor as well as improved tactical computer systems and automatic targeting. Since the Master of Silence were protected against Iron Man’s usual weaponry (Repulsors and Unibeam), those weapons were removed from the first version of the armor. In both iterations, the shoulder mounted weapons are modular and can be removed and replaced. In the first version, both the double-barreled cannon and the laser blade were fixed (the flamethrower was built over the laser blade casing). In the Rhodes model, the wrist weapons became modular too.

  • Repulsors (Rhodes model only): Laser-guided particle beam emission units mounted in the palm of each hand.
  • Unibeam (Rhodes model only): Multi-band light and force beam emitter. Can be adjusted for a variety of effects such as searchlight, heat ray, tractor beam, laser, image inducer and broad-spectrum (UV to Infra-red) light beam.
  • Pulse Bolt Generators (probably Rhodes model only): Plasma discharges that build in intensity as they travel through the atmosphere, picking up static and ambient energy, for a more powerful effect than the repulsors.
  • Force Shield: A focused photon emitter on the back of his left wrist that shapes into a shield.
  • Electromagnetic Pulse: knocks out electrical systems within range, including those of the armor itself, which reboots after six minutes.
  • Double-barreled cannon (wrist-mounted): Wrist-mounted, fires various ammo types. Ammo is user-selectable and is fed from belt circling the upper wrist.
  • Flamethrower (wrist-mounted): Largely ineffective while in-flight.
  • Laser Blade (wrist-mounted)
  • Minigun (shoulder-mounted): Shoulder-mounted and using an electronic firing system. This is a state-of-the-art gatling-type machine gun firing caseless ammunition. It can be loaded with a wide array of various bullet types including stun and armor-piercing. Default loadout is 1800 rounds of depleted uranium bullets which are fired electrically, minimizing moving parts.
  • Micro-Rocket Launcher (shoulder-mounted): Holds a variety of up to eight rockets, including High Explosive, Concussion, Smoke, Flare, and Miniature Nuclear.
  • Particle Beam Discharger (shoulder-mounted): also called plasma cannon.
  • Single barrel missile laucher (shoulder-mounted): similar to a man-portable missile laucher, this weapon holds only a single shot.
  • On one special occasion, the armor was coated with a hyper-refractory prismatic polymer which could deflect the piercing rays of the Living Laser even at maximum power.

NTU-150 Telepresence Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #281

Though similar in design to both the Neo-Classic armor and its remote-controlled counterpart, the NTU-150 incorporated the new SE Telepresence technology, enabling the unit to be operated under full Virtual Control. This unit was not a wearable suit of armor — rather, it was a fully-articulated device controlled by the mental impulses of the user via a remote headset apparatus. The remote headset transmitted commands to the active unit in much the same way as the human brain transmits commands to the central nervous system (in this case, it is via a subspace radio connection, lessening reaction time to almost zero). Similarly, the visual, aural, and (to a lesser degree) tactile information collected by the NTU-150 could be interpreted by the user’s brain in the same way as normal sensory data. The primary difference is that the sensory data collected by the NTU-150 includes a full range of electromagnetic spectra and computer-processed data normally unavailable to humans, while the active devices contained in the unit includes not only analogues to the human body, but weaponry, data collection and processing hardware as well, all under autonomic and voluntary nervous system control. In contrast to traditional robotic devices, the NTU-150 contains no mechanical framework to mimic the action of the human body; the unit’s outer shell is articulated by a multiprocessor-controlled structural integrity field which allows for a much greater range of movement.

Modular Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #300

This unit is a drastic departure from all of the previous armors. Instead of a single cohesive unit, each piece of the armor is a stand alone subsystem that can be interchanged at will. As such, while the overall unit is still referred to as the Mark 11, the actual configuration at any given time will vary. The shell was composed of layered “flex-metal” which could condense itself like a 3-dimensional accordion pleat. Micro-scale suit tiles were fabricated by genetically engineered metal-affinity bacteria, which assembled themselves in specific orderly arrays and then expired, leaving behind various metallic deposits which form all the metal shapes and micro-electronic circuits.

The Modular Armor is rather well-known outside of comics due to it being the main armor in the Iron Man (TV series) and Capcom’s Marvel vs. Capcom video game series.

Hulkbuster Armor, Mk I

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #304

The Hulkbuster armor is a heavy-duty exo-frame (an add-on to the Mk. XI Modular Armor) designed for maximum strength amplification at the cost of reduced versatility and mobility. As its name suggests, it was specifically designed for hand-to-hand combat with the rampaging Hulk. The armor was rated with a lift (press) capacity of 175 tons. During its maiden run, the armor enabled Stark to hold his own in sustained physical combat with the Hulk. In subsequent battles with the Hulk, however, Stark has declined to utilize this armor, so it is unclear whether it is indeed capable of defeating the Hulk.

Arctic Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #318

Very little is known about this armor. Stark — or possibly an evil doppelgänger — used it to travel to an Arctic bunker. It is hypothesized that the armor may have special thermal units for added wearer insulation. It also looked very striking, being blue and silver in color, and possessing a unique hexagonal chest beam.

Crossing Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #319 (August, 1995)

This armor may reflect the mindset that resulted from Tony Stark being controlled more and more by Immortus. He did away with the still perfectly serviceable (and because of its very nature still state-of-the-art) Modular Armor and constructed a much more specialized armor – this one, with hindsight, was definitely designed for combat. In fact it is possible it was designed to take on the Avengers.

Its appearance was simpler, sporting rivets as its only decoration. Bulky gauntlets housed more powerful repulsors on top of the wrist instead of in the palm of the hand. As Tony was dragged deeper and deeper into Immortus´ plan, it seemed his armor reflected this – going from blood-red and gold to darker burgundy-and-bronze.

Retro Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 1) #325 (February, 1996)

This armor’s design history is unknown; it stands out because it, out of all the other armors in the armory, it was picked by “Teen Tony”, a Tony Stark who had been plucked out of an alternate time stream many years in the past to help fight his present-day self who was believed to be controlled by Kang the Conqueror (actually Immortus, but this was unknown at the time). It is referred to as the Retro armor here because some of its design details reflect a 1950’s car. It was otherwise unremarkable and was destroyed by the present-day Tony Stark in minutes.

Teen Tony Armor

After the Crossing disaster was over, Tony Stark was dead and his teenage counterpart from the past had his heart ripped to shreds. In an ironic twist, he still needed a cybernetic chestplate after surgery to make sure it would keep beating.

While not originally intending to build an armor, the young Tony soon found himself reinforcing the basic chestplate, then adding gauntlets, and finally, after a near-fatal encounter with the supervillain Frostbite, he threw together an armor built out of a mishmash of spare parts lying around Avengers Mansion.

Soon after, he set to improving his design, and ended up with a basic, but very functional Iron Man armor, consisting merely of a torso unit (worn at all times) and gloves, boots and a helmet which compressed to a size which could be practically stored under ordinary clothes; when activated, they would take their rigid, expanded size and shape and Tony’s limbs would be covered in “hard light” fields serving instead of the traditional, flexible armor (although it looked identical).

Heroes Reborn Armor

  • First Appearance: Iron Man (vol. 2) #1 (November, 1996)

During the Onslaught event, Tony Stark was one of the heroes who sacrificed himself to defeat the menace, and consequently was shunted into a newly-created pocket universe by reality-altering mutant Franklin Richards.

In the new universe, every person had a new, but complete history – including a childhood, youth and adulthood – and no memory of their original universe. So Iron Man had to be reborn – and he was, this time not as a result of a booby trap in the Far East, but a direct encounter with the newly-born Incredible Hulk. His chest pierced by shrapnel from a crashed helicopter, Tony Stark had no choice but to don an experimental exoskeleton (Project: Prometheus Rising) which had cost the life of one of his closest friends before. He had to keep wearing the chest plate constantly to keep his shredded heart beating thereafter.

The paradigm of this armor was quite different from the one Iron Man had worn for years in the baseline universe, but the arrangement of weapons, and, oddly enough, the color scheme, remained similar. Its sensors seemed somewhat more advanced. It remained cloaked when not worn, but could join up with the chestplate in seconds when called.

Armors of the 1970s

May 3, 2008

The armor, including the red and gold color scheme remained largely intact. A depolarizing armor, in deactivated mode literally as thin, light and comfortable as woolen underwear, was introduced in #85, but proved too vulnerable and was soon replaced with a more conventional design.